(in Russian, derevnia, probably from the Old Russian deru, drat’—to clear the land of forests, to bring virgin land under the plow). In the narrow meaning of the term, which has become historically established in the Russian language, a village is a small agricultural settlement—one of the types of rural populated areas. The word derevnia (village) originated in northeastern Russia in the 14th century and spread to other areas of Central Russia. The other type of settlement characteristic of these areas was the selo (town), which was distinguished from the village primarily by its larger size and often by the presence of a landowner’s estate or church (in the Soviet period, the site of a rural soviet). Various terms were used for populated areas including vyselki (settlements), pochinki (small settlements), khutors (individual farmsteads), and zaimki (squatters’ holdings). In the southern agricultural regions of European Russia, primarily in the Don and Kuban’, large agricultural settlements were usually called stanitsy. In the mountainous regions of the northern Caucasus the primary type of settlement was the aul. The Armenians’ equivalent of the derevnia was the giukh or shen, and the farmers of Middle Asia had the kishlak. In Russian writing the general term derevnia was often substituted for these and other names of peasant settlements.